Nor Farahiyah Ghazali*, Farah Farisha Mustafa, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad and Maizatul Akma Ibrahim Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )
Background: Cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. Breast cancer tops the chart as the most common cancer today and has become the major cause of death in female population. Approximately 60% of currently applied cancer drugs are derived from natural sources. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. is one of natural plants that had been used as herbal medicine. Phytochemical compounds from this plant have become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been linked with various biomedical properties.
Objective: To identify the phenolic profile of P. sarmentosum leaves and to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of its methanolic extract on human breast carcinoma cells, T47D.
Methods: Phenolic compounds of methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves were analyzed by using Folin-Ciocalteu method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro antioxidant study of the extract was carried out using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and DNA fragmentation were carried out to study the extract’s cytotoxicity against T47D cell line.
Results: The total phenolic content (TPC) for the P. sarmentosum extract was 89.33 mg GAE/g DM and HPLC revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids. From the DPPH assay, P. sarmentosum extract exhibited antioxidant activity with the EC50 at 60.24 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity analysis by MTS assay showed the treatment of T47D cells with the plant extract caused cytotoxic effect on the cells, with an IC50 value of 2.69 µg/mL. The DNA fragmentation assay exhibited apoptotic cells evidence with the appearance of DNA laddering pattern in electrophoresis agarose gel for the extract-treated T47D cells genomic.
Conclusion: The phenolic compounds identified from P. sarmentosum have cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells. These compounds could be promising anticancer agent candidates for breast cancer treatment. Further studies on the isolation, structural and mechanism elucidation of the active compounds are required prior to in vivo and clinical analysis.
Piper sarmentosum, breast cancer, phenolic compounds, antioxidant, cytotoxicity
Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21040 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang