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Aristolochia triangularis Cham. Stems and Leaves’ Essential Oils and their Antimicrobial and Antimycobacterial Effects

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Ionara I. Dalcol*, Alessandra O. Pereira, Luisa H. Paz, Gabriela Benetti, Fallon S. Siqueira, Marli M.A. Campos, Eduardo M. Ethur and Ademir F. Morel   Pages 200 - 206 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: Aristolochia triangularis Cham., popularly known as the "cipó-milhomens", "angelicó" and "ypê-mi", is applied for the treatment of wounds, skin diseases (6,7), digestive and circulatory system diseases as an antipyretic and for malaria fever also.

Objective: In this work, we investigated the chemical composition, the antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activities of the Essential Oils (EOs) extracted from A. triangularis fresh stems and leaves collected in Southern Brazil.

Methods: Fresh stems and fresh leaves of Aristolochia triangularis Cham. were separately subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of the Essential Oils (EOs) was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil samples were evaluated for their antimycobacterial, antibacterial and antifungal activities against twenty-four microorganisms.

Results: Hydrodistillation of fresh stems and leaves of A. triangularis resulted in 0.16% (w/w) and 0.37% (w/w) of light-yellow oils, respectively. Germacrene D was found in 13.2 - 13.5% in both the EOs. The constituent most abundant in the stems EO (19.18%) was the oxygenated diterpene ent- Kaur-16-en-19-al (10), along with E-nerolidol (17.89%). The main constituents of the leaves EO were bicyclogermacrene (24.79%), β-elemene (11.30%), E-caryophyllene (10.40%) and germacrene A (9.42%), in addition to the previously mentioned germacrene D. The stems and leaves EOs showed capacity to inhibit the Gram-negative Enterobacter aerogenes and the stems EO showed the capacity to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC values of 31.2 μg/mL. S. aureus was found to be moderately sensitive to leaves EO, while stems EO displayed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL). Candida glabrata was highly susceptible to both EOs (MIC values < 3.9 μg/mL). The EOs showed moderate potential to inhibit the growth of Cryptococcus gatti and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs of 62.5 μg/mL).

Conclusion: The A. triangularis essential oils from stems and leaves displayed the capacity to inhibit Enterobacter aerogenes (MIC values of 31.2 μg/mL) and high antifungal effect against Candida glabrata (MIC values of <3.9 μg/mL). Mycobacterium massiliense and M. abscessus were susceptible to the leaves EO, with MICs of 39.06 μg/mL. These results showed the potential of A. triangularis essential oils as antifungal and antimycobacterial agents to be used in the development of new antibiotics.

Keywords:

Aristolochiaceae, Aristolochia triangularis, essential oil, biological activities, antimicrobial activity, antimycobacterial activity.

Affiliation:

Departamento de Quimica, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Departamento de Quimica, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Departamento de Quimica, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Departamento de Quimica, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Universidade do Vale do Taquari, Lajeado-RS, 95914-014, Departamento de Quimica, Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria- RS, 97105-900

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