Nahid Akhtar, Rabia Ayoubi, Vinaypreet Kour, Umesh Goutam and M. Amin-ul Mannan* Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )
Fungal diseases cause more deaths as compared to combined deaths due to malaria and tuberculosis. There are around 3.8 million fungal species, but only about 300 of them are pathogenic to humans. Invasive fungal diseases are majorly caused by Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Mucorales, and Pneumocystis. It has been estimated that around 1.5 million people die because of these infections across the globe. The emergence of resistance against the major classes of antifungal drugs poses a serious threat to public health. Moreover, the commonly used antifungal drugs are loaded with side-effects. Some of them are nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, cause cardiomyopathy, and in acute cases, cytotoxicity. Hence, it is important to seek novel molecules that can be safe and effective antifungal drugs. Naturally occurring molecules in plants and various microorganisms can be a safe and effective alternative to the existing antifungal drugs. In this review, the role of various phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and phenols, as potential antifungal agents has been discussed. Similarly, naturally occurring molecules in other microorganisms like algae, bacteria, and various other fungi have been summarized. The information discussed in this review can be useful in the identification of novel antifungals.
Invasive fungal infection, immunocompromised patients, alkaloids, antifungal agents, marine algae, phytochemicals.
Lovely Professional University Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Kabul University Department of Pharmacognosy, Lovely Professional University Zoology, Lovely Professional University Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Lovely Professional University Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences